Uno de los primeros estudiosos en realizar excavaciones sistemáticas de la Roma Antigua, fue Rodolfo Lanciani, ingeniero y estudioso que llega a Roma, apenas ésta es transformada en Capital del Reino de Italia (1870). A los 25 años, Lanciani es nombrado Secretario de la recién nacida Comisión Arqueológica Comunal que le permitió realizar los primeros estudios profundos a través de excavaciones miradas a descubrir la ciudad histórica. En el momento de su muerte, en el 1929, dejó un legado de 120.000 fichas empastadas en 95 grandes volúmenes, que pasó a engrosar la Biblioteca Vaticana.
The use of opus caementicium provided the impulse for the monumental development of Roman architecture during the imperial period, but it was fired bricks that served as the primary means for its advance. In reality, bricks were already part of the oldest building tradition in Rome, but generally in the form of mud bricks made with an argillaceous mixture and left to dry in the sun. This opus latericium was still being put to general use in construction in the first century B.C. with excellent results., at least according to Vitruvius , who emphasized the monetary value that Romans attributed to walls in mud bricks, as compared to those in stone.
Pope Francis has dismissed a question about whether condoms can be condoned in the fight against Aids by saying there are more important issues confronting the world, like malnutrition, environmental exploitation and the lack of safe drinking water.
Francis was asked about the church’s opposition to condoms while returning Monday to Rome from Kenya, Uganda and the Central Africa Republic, Africa in general and Kenya and Uganda in particular have been hard hit by the Aids epidemic, and the Catholic church has faced criticism that its position has contributed to the problem.
Francis’s predecessor, Pope Benedict XVI, earned the wrath of healthcare professionals, gay rights activists and the United Nations by saying on a visit to Africa that condoms were not the answer to fighting HIV and could actually make it worse.
Francis has made scant reference to Aids in his speeches this past week. He did, however, visit HIV-infected children at a Uganda hospital and kissed each one, listened to moving testimony from a girl born with the virus and thanked the church’s healthcare workers for caring for those infected.
A clearly irked Francis criticized the question directed at him during his in-flight press conference about whether the church should change its position on condoms to limit HIV’s spread. He said it “seems too small, partial”, when there are bigger issues confronting humanity.
“I don’t like getting into questions or reflections that are so technical when people die because they don’t have water or food or housing,” he said.
He said when those problems are taken care of, questions like condoms and Aids can be addressed.
Francis has previously signalled that he doesn’t want to get drawn into culture war issues over contraception or abortion, and his response Monday was very much in line with such comments.
Francis was euphoric, though, about his first trip to Africa, saying he was constantly surprised by the continent and the ability of its people to find joy with so little.
He denounced how Africa has constantly been exploited by foreign powers, citing the slave trade and those who “only look to take Africa’s riches”.
“Africa is a martyr. It’s a martyr of exploitation over history,” he said. “I love Africa for this.”
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